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Nepal is a landlocked country in the Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world. Nepal has three distinct geographical zones-lowland hills, mountains, valleys and the Great Himalayan Range- with subtropical to alpine-arctic temperatures and wide variations in vegetation and animal life.
Most people in Nepal are farmers. They grow grain grain, fruit and other crops in the lowlands, where temperatures are warmest. Rice and corn are grown in terraced, or stair-like fields in the cooler hilly regions. Potatoes and barely are the staple or chief crops at higher altitudes, where temperatures are the coolest.
The Nepalese raise goats, cattle and yaks for diary products. Meat is eaten mostly on special occasions. Religious rules affect which meat people in Nepal eat. Hindus who make up almost 70 percent of the population, do not eat beef. Islam does not allow its followers, Muslims, to  eat pork. The Buddhist religion prohibits the killing of birds and animals but allows the eating of meat.
Atypical family meal in Nepal might include daal bhat (rice with lentil gravy) or chapatti (a flat bread), steamed vegetables and  achaar (a paste of spiced pickled fruits). About 90 percent of Nepalese people live in rural areas. They often lack electricity for refrigerators, so they rely on cereals such as grain, lentils and beans. People take their traditions and the kinds of food they eat with them when they move from one place to another. You might recognize examples when you look at your classmate's special foods or at specially restaurants in your community.
Saraswati Mantras

Saraswati Mantra #1

Yaa Kundendu tushaara haaradhavalaa, Yaa shubhravastraavritha ...1

Yaa veenavara dandamanditakara, Yaa shwetha padmaasana...2

Yaa brahmaachyutha shankara prabhritibhir Devaisadaa Vanditha....1

Saa Maam Paatu Saraswatee Bhagavatee Nihshesha jaadyaapahaa...2

Translation in English: “May Goddess Saraswati, who is fair like the jasmine-colored moon, and whose pure white garland is like frosty dew drops; who is adorned in radiant white attire, on whose beautiful arm rests the veena, and whose throne is a white lotus; who is surrounded and respected by the Gods, protect me. May you fully remove my lethargy, sluggishness, and ignorance.”

Saraswati Mantra #2

Shuklaam Brahmvichaar Saar Paramaadyaam Jagadvyaapineem Veennaa Pushtak
Dhaarinneebhamay Daam Jaad Yaapandhkaaraapahaam.
Haste Sfatik Maalikaam Vidhateem Paramaasane Sansthitaam Vande Taam

Parameshwareem Bhagwateem Buddhi Pradaam Shaaradaam.

Translation in English: I pray to Bhagwati Saraswati who has a fair complexion, who is the first and foremost divine energy, who is present in the world in the form of knowledge, who wields a Veenaa, Vedas, Sfatik rosary in her hands and one of whose hands is raised in blessing. She is capable of removing ignorance and bestowing intelligence.

Saraswati Mantra #3

Saraswathi Namasthubhyam,

Varadey Kaamarupinee!

Vidhyarambham Karishyami,

Sidhir bhavathu mey sada !

Translation in English: “Oh ! Goddess, Saraswathi, my humble prostrations unto Thee, who are the fulfiller of all my wishes. I start my studies with the request that thou will bestow Thy blessings on me.”

Saraswati Mantra #4

Saraswati Mahabhage

Vidye Kamalalochane

Vishwaroope Vishaalaakshi

Vidyam dehi namosthuthe

Translation in English: “O, the great Goddess Saraswati, the lotus-eyed personified knowledge... O, large-eyed Goddess, taking the form of the whole universe, thou shower me with all the powers and glories of all knowledge that exist.”

Saraswati Mantra #5

“Om Aim Kleeng Saum Saraswatiya Namaha”

Significance: This mantra makes a person a learned scholar and he attains high proficiency in education. This mantra should be recited at all morning pujas.
Sometimes Called as : Vasant Panchami, Shree Panchami, Sri Panchami, Basanta Panchamu

Basanta Panchamu represents the spring season of Nepal. It falls on the 5th day of bright lunar fortnight. On this day, Basanta Shrawan a religious function is held at the courtyard of Human Dhoka palace. It is also the festival celebrated to honor Swarswati, the Goddess of knowledge. Thousands of school and college students offer worships at the temple of Goddess Swarswoti. books, pens, musical instruments, ink and spinning wheels are also worshipped on the occasions. Sarswati temples of Swoyambhu and Gairidhara are the centre of such religious activities in Kathmandu.
Source: ecotrek
Western Development Region also has mountains, hills and plains lands. The highest mountain peaks of this region are: Yangra, Manaslu, Annapurna, Dhaulagiri and so on. The deepest gorge in the world is "Dana" of the Kaligandaki river. At one point, the river bed is 5,500 meter below the neighboring summits of Annapurna and Dhaulagiri. Similarly, the "Tilijo Tal" of Manang is at the height of 4,919 meter. Pokhara valley has a large number of lakes such as Phewa, Rupa, Begnas, Dipang, Madi Khaste, etc. Because of which it is called "Lake District of Nepal". Pokhara Valley receives highest rainfall in the country for which it is called the "Cherapunji of Nepal". Beautiful mountain peaks like Dhaulagiri, Annapurna, Machhapuchhre, etc surround the Pokhara valley. Deep caves, beautiful lakes and rivers have made this valley a famous tourist resort. The Sapta Gandaki river system irrigates this region. The Sapta Gandaki i.e. seven Gandaki rivers are:- Seti Gandaki, Kali Gandaki, Daraudi, Madi, Marshyandi, Trishuli and Budhi Gandaki. When these rivers mix together, they become "Narayani". Some other rivers of this region are Tinau and Marsyandi. The northern part of this region, to leeward side where it is dry throughout the year. The wind blows very strongly in Jomsom which is utilized in producing electricity at a small scale at Kagbeni. Southern part of Lumbini is fertile.
Alcohol is a drug for person, a fuel for cars and a solvent grease. Alcohol dose not kill person instantly but in a slow process. People drink it due to the following reasons:
  1. sudden sadness or deep anxiety
  2. curiosity
  3. hard to take the problem (समस्या स्वीकार्न कठिन हुनाले )
  4. be intoxicated, boozed and jingoist (फुर्तिवाजे)
  5. be socialized
  6. follow the rumor of being handsome or beautiful

A puff of cigarette, a sniff of tobacco, a gulp of wine, beer or ale (जांड) may plunge into mire later. Do not take them even for sake of socializing. Once tempted, ever doomed. If it is, following are the dangers of alcohol alone:

  1. Mental depression or damage of brain due to fights, accidents and addiction.
  2. Cancer of throat and stomach.
  3. Hepatitis, cirrhosis of liver vitamin defficiency.
  4. Damage to nerves.
  5. Stomach ulcers and then cancer.
  6. Death of baby of pregnant women
During the 1990s, our neighboring kingdom, Bhutan faced a serious problem. The problem was created by the government and its people. The people, mainly the ones who were originally from Nepal, were treated badly by the government. They were forced to adopt Bhutanese way of life, including wearing clothes, social custom, language, etc. They revolted against the decision made by the government and demanded human rights. The king of Bhutan considered it against the soil of the country and treated those people cruelly. Many of the leaders were arrested and put into prison. The people could not resist the atrocities forced by the Bhutanese Government. So, they left their country and came to Nepal and began to live as refugees in several camps in eastern Terai.

It is a serious problem both for Bhutanese people as well as Nepal. Nepal itself is facing problems of over population. When more people are added then it cannot cope with the situation with its limited resources.
Untouchable is a bad  social evil prevalent in our country due to caste system. Under such system some castes people are regarded as untouchable by higher castes people.. They are downtrodden people. They are prohibited to enter the house of high caste people and high caste people do not eat food cooked or touched by them. This system is a stigma for Nepalese society. It has degraded humanity and violated human rights and dignity. Thus has made very bad discrimination among  the people on the basis of birth. Therefore, such social evils must be uprooted from the society through joint efforts of the people.
According to some sources (may be in Kantipur TV or Nepal TV,  Nepal One or other) I came to know that unaccountability  has been 100% eliminated from our country.
This system is common in the hilly areas of the Far-Western Development Region. In this system people offer their daughters to god in the temple in order to please god and get blessing from him. The girls thus offered aren't allowed to get married. This evil practice has violated woman's right i.e. right to get family care, to get married and form a family, etc. Hence, immediate steps should be taken to eliminated such inhumane system through public awareness.
Thanks from socialnepal.blogspot.com
Corruption is going against the norms of most of the post and abuse of power and authority. Bribery, favouritism, nepotism, economic irregularity, hiding of proof, verdict against the innocent, using public property for personal use are some of the examples of corruption. Nepal is a country among the countries of high rate corruption. If we do not control corruption, development can't be possible as expected. Rule of law is limited only in slogan if there is corruption.
Corruption is a serious social problem in our country. Corruption is the main obstacle of development of our country. It is taken as social problem due to the reasons below:
  1. Corruption slows down the development activities.
  2. It discourages the spirit of skilled and honest citizen.
  3. Corruption affects the fair distribution of resources and opportunities negatively.
  4. Corruption doesn't let democracy function well.
Girl trafficking is an illegal act. The act of selling girls is proved to be aggression (अत्याचार) upon time. The discrimination between male and female has weakened the potentialities of girls even if they are equally able. They are trafficked and left at brothels where they are compelled to act as prostitutes. And thus aggressions crosses the boundary. Moreover, they suffer from AIDS or others venereal diseases infected by the clients. While they are brought back to country, other problems crop up. The families, the society and the community may not accept them. The problems of accommodation, employment and medical care are always there. Such girls are generally, mentally disturbed. They need good care of their health, love and affection from near and dear ones which is probably impossible because of fear. They discard them and even drive them away. Such life is the futile life. So, trafficking is the greatest crime and the most humiliated act which must be driven out.
Government of Nepal, NGO and INGO are actively working against girl trafficking. Maiti Nepal, a non-government organization, is also effectively working for the rehabilitation of trafficked girls whom they call back from India and somewhere else or those who voluntarily return. This organization also generates awareness to deter (निरुत्साहित गर्न ) girl trafficking. Similarly, fifteen organizations have joined together to form 'Alliance against trafficking of women and girls in Nepal (AATWIN)' that will arise an important national and international issue and strictly prohibits girl trafficking, punishes brokers and rehabilitates trafficked girls. The news, views, information, etc. are punished in different newspapers, journals and magazines are also contributing a lot to root this out. Hence, many brokers and traffickers have been arrested, trafficked girls or women have been returned and many girls or women have been caught in border or at the time of bargaining.
Social work or social service means to provide help, advice, tanning and services through members, individuals, groups, the entire community or even a nation
Natural resources remain in the same form unless human power uses it. Thus, they may not alone benefit people. Human power is needed to make them dynamic. It is human power which produced raw materials and others goods from them. Moreover, human power is essential to provide service to others and help others. Development of infrastructure of development also falls under them.
Besides, many other human powers, education sectors needs many teachers. Pilots, engineers, drivers, motor-mechanics, etc. are needed in transport sector. Similarly, communication sectors needs telephone operators, post person, ticket sellers, receptionists, journalists, etc. Likewise, water and electricity sectors need civil and electric engineers, electrician, etc. Above all the health sectors needs qualified and variety of human power.
A country may not have enough natural resources and good geography but if its human-resource is good then development can be brought. We can take Japanese as for example. It is Japanese people who brought such development in Japan despite its lacking in natural resources. So, off all the resources, human resource is the most important for a country.
Eastern Development Region grows enough rice, wheat, maize, millet, barely, etc. as food crops and tea, tobacco, jute, sugarcane, potatoes, cardamom, etc. cash crops. Here are many agro-based industries- some industries are based on cash crops and some industries are based on cash crops and some industries are based on food crops. For instance, Biratnagar Jute Mill, the oldest industry of all and the biggest Jute industry, it is located in this development region. Moreover, the people of Eastern Development Region such as Rai, Limbu, Gurung and Magar are recruited in Indian and British army of handsome salary. Because of all these resources of income people have better income. And the lifestyle of people living in this development region is good.
The traditional music that is played during an event, Jatra, fair, festival, etc is called folk music. Folk music is associated with a particular place, caste, religion, event, etc. It is named after the famous person of a caste or its shape or the tune it produces. The folk musical instrument are made using the local materials. The manufacturing and way of playing such musical instrument differs from one musical instrument to another. Folk music is almost mandatory while singing folk songs.
The system of government in which a country is divided into several states is called a federal system. In federal system of government there are two governments: central government and state government. The interim constitution of Nepal 2063 has also accepted this concept to implement in Nepal through its second ammendment.
In Nepal's context importance of federal system are:
  1. This increases the competition between the states which promotes development.
  2. The means and resources of states are properly utilized.
  3. The states do not have to wait for the center for development activities. This makes development faster.
  4. The sates becomes self-reliant.
Biodiversity of a location is the existence of organisms and species of living beings per square unit area. It indicates the total living heritages of the earth and their status as well as differences, or the system system ans structure of living beings in the nature.

Some of the rare plants of Nepal are :
  1. Golden Michelia (Champ)
  2. Spike nard (Jatamasi)
  3. Serpentia
  4. Panch Aunle (Five Fingers)
  5. Yarsagumba
Some of the rare animals are:
  1. Clouded Leopard
  2. Red Panda
  3. One Horned Rhinoceros
Population denotes the total number of people living in a certain geographical area over a specific period of time.
Size of population means the units of population. Persons are the units that make total population. If there are more units or persons, the population size will be large and vice-versa. The size of population is never constant. It is ever changing.
Population growth refers to the additional number of people to the total population of a place or a country. Birth increases the population of a country.
Therefore, higher fertility is the symbol of high population growth rate. Unlike this, high mortality symbolizes low population growth rate of negative growth of population. Migration either increase of decreases the population of a country.
There are various types of folk songs in terms of religion, caste, place and culture. Such folk songs have equal importance in different contents and situations. People sing folk songs in different festivals are the suitable time to sing folk songs. For example people sing Deusi song in dipawali (Tihar), Malashri in dashain

Yarshagumba is found in meadows of Himalayan region around 5000 m. from sea level. It is found in the form of caterpillar during the winter and in the form of a fungus after the snow melts. It is a species of fungi which has a scientific name as Cordyceps Sinensis (Yarshagumba). It does not have any leaves, roots or stem. It acts as natural Viagra if it is eaten mixing with milk and honey. It is endangered species and protected in Nepal. The government has put ban on collection, uses, sales and export of Cordycept (Yarshagumba)


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